MicroProcessors and its Applications

 MicroProcessors and its particular Applications Article


Detailed Answers (in detail)

1 ) Explain the Evolution of Microprocessors.


Microprocessor is a multipurpose, programmable, clock-driven, sign-up based computer that says binary instructions from a storage device referred to as memory, welcomes binary data as suggestions and procedures data relating to those guidance, and provides while output. A common way of categorizing microprocessors is by the number of parts that their ALU can work time. Put simply. a processor with a 4. bit will be referred to as a 4-bit processor, regardless of the range of address lines or the number of data shuttle bus lines which it has. Intel 4004:

The first commercially available microprocessor was the Intel 4004. produced in year 1971. It comprised 2300 PMOS transistors. The 4004~was a 4 little device intended to be used with some other devices to make a calculator. Some logic designers, on the other hand saw that device could possibly be used to substitute PC boards full of combinational and sequential logic products. Also the cabability to change the function of a program by just changing the programming. rather than upgrading the components. is very appealing. Intel 8008:

In 1972 Intel came out with the 8008. which has been capable of working with 8-bit words. The 8008, even so required twenty or more added devices to form a func­tional CPU. Intel 8080:

In 1974 Intel declared the 8080. which a new much larger instructions set compared to the 8008 and required simply two further devices to form a functional PROCESSOR. Also. the 8080 applied NMOS transistors. so it controlled much faster compared to the 8008. The 8080 is known as a second-generation microprocessor. It reqires +12 V power supply. Motorola MC6800

Soon after Intel produced the 8080. Motorola came out with the MC6800. another 8-bit general-purpose CPU. The 6800 acquired the advantage that this required only a +5-V supply as opposed to the -5-V. +5-V. and & 12­V items required by 8080.

For several years the 8080 as well as the 6800 had been the top-selling 8-bit micropro­cessors. Some of their competition were the MOS Tech­nology 6502. employed as the CPU inside the Apple 2 microcom­puter. and. the Zilog Z80. used as the CPU inside the Radio Shack TRS~O microcomputer.

Three significant directions of microprocessor Evolutions are

(i) Dedicated or Embedded Remotes

(ii) Bit Slice Cpus

(iii) Practical CPUs

(i) Dedicated or perhaps Embedded Controllers:

One path has been devoted or embedded controllers. These devices are used to control " smart" machines. such as microwave stoves. clothes washers. sewing ma­chines. auto ignition systems. and metal lathes. Texas Devices has developed millions of their very own TMS-1000 group of 4-bit microprocessors for this form of applica­tion. In 1976 Intel introduced the 8048. which in turn contains a great 8-bit CPU. RAM. RANGE OF MOTION. and some I/O ports all in one 40-pin package deal. Other producers have implemented with comparable products. They are often termed as microcontrollers. Some currently available products in this category-the Intel 8051 and the Motorola MC6801. A much more recently launched single­ nick microcontroller. the Intel 8096. contains a 16-bit PROCESSOR. ROM. RAM. a UART. ports. timers. and a 10-bit analog-to-digital converter.

(ii) Bit Piece processors:

An additional direction of microprocessor development has been bit-slice processors. For some applications. general­ purpose Microprocessors such as the 8080 and 6800 are not quickly enough or perhaps do not have appropriate instruction pieces. For these applications. several manufacturers produce de­vices which can be utilized to build a personalized CPU. A good example is the Advanced Micro Equipment 2900 group of devices. This family includes 4-bit ALUs. multiplexers. sequencers. and other parts needed for custom-building a CPU. The term slice comes from the fact that these parts can be connected in parallel to work with 8-bit words, 16-bit words. or 32-bit phrases. In other words. a designer can add as many pieces as...