Man Circumcision: a Social and Medical Misunderstanding
Male Circumcision: A Interpersonal and Medical Misconception
University of Johns Hopkins
Man circumcision is defined as a surgical procedure in which the prepuce of the penile is segregated from the glands and excised. (Mosby, 1986) Dating dating back to 2800 BC, circumcision have been performed as part of religious ceremony, as a growing up or premarital rite, like a disciplinary assess, as a liberation against the dangerous effects of penile blood, and since a tag of captivity. (Milos & Macris, 1992) In the United States, advocation of circumcision was perpetuated amid the Victorian perception that circumcision served as being a remedy up against the ills of masturbation and systemic disease. (Lund, 1990) The clinical community further more reinforced these beliefs by simply reporting the incidence of hygiene-related urogenital disorders being higher in uncircumcised men. Circumcision is now a social norm in the United States. Routine circumcision is the most widely practiced the chidhood surgery and an estimated one to one-and-a-half , 000, 000 newborns, or perhaps 80 to 90 percent of the inhabitants, are circumcised. (Lund, 1990) Despite these types of statistics, circumcision still is still a topic of great debate. The medical community is analyzing the need for a surgical procedure that is certainly historically based on religious and cultural doctrine and not of medical need. Possible complications of circumcision include hemorrhage, infection, operative trauma, and pain. (Gelbaum, 1992) Unless of course absolute medical indications are present, why should male infants be exposed to these dangers? In essence, the society has perpetuated a great unnecessary medical procedure that permanently alters a normal, healthy body part.
This paper investigates the literary works surrounding the debate above circumcision, delineates the imperfections that exist inside the research, and discusses the nurse's role in the circumcision debate.
Report on Literature
Many studies performed worldwide suggest a relationship between insufficient circumcision and urinary tract infection (UTI). In 1982, Ginsberg and McCracken described an instance series of newborns five days to eight weeks of age in the hospital with UTI. (Thompson, 1990) Of the total infant human population hospitalized with UTI, sixty-two were guys and only 3 were circumcised. (Thompson, 1990) Based on this information, the research workers speculated that, " the uncircumcised male has an improved susceptibility to UTI. " Subsequently, Wiswell and acquaintances from Brooke Army Medical center released several papers based on a nostalgic cohort research design of kids hospitalized with UTI inside the first year of existence. The experts conclusions advise a 10 to 20-fold increase in risk for UTI in the uncircumcised male in the first yr of existence. (Thompson, 1990) However , Thompson (1990) reports that in these studies evaluation of the data was extremely crude and there were not any controls for the parameters of age, competition, education level, or cash flow. The record findings via further studies are equally misconstruing. In year 1986, Wiswell and Roscelli reported an increase in the number of UTIs since the circumcision rate dropped. By plainly leaving out " saugrenu data", the results with the study are again very misleading. In 1989, Herzog from Boston Children's Clinic reported on the retrospective case-control study for the relationship between your incidence of UTI and circumcision in the male toddler under twelve months of age. Below too, the results were not really adjusted to account for the variables old, ethnicity, and drop-out charge of the participants. It is apparent that this research is statistically fragile and should not really be conditions on which to decide for or perhaps against neonatal circumcision.
Lund (1990) reports which a study done by Parker and co-workers estimates the relative likelihood of uncircumcised males to be double that of circumcised males for acquiring herpes virus genitalis, candidiasis, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Simonsen and co workers performed a case-control examine on 340...
References: American Nurses Affiliation (1991). Standards of scientific nursing
practice. Washington, M. C.: American Nurses Affiliation.
Gelbaum, We. (1992). Circumcision to educate not really indoctrinate-a
mandate for authorized nurse-midwives. Record of Nurse-